Transforming urban slums goes beyond the capacities of local people, since the powerlessness of the poor oftentimes is the result of systematic socioeconomic, political, bureaucratic, cultural and religious processes and systems that disempower the poor. Without addressing these underlying causes of poverty, it is simply not possible to sustain positive change. Transformational change, then, needs to be both bottom-up and top-down, all at the same time. Building broad-based networks of community groups, NGOs, churches, private investors, social entrepreneurs, donor agencies and local governments, it follows, is vital to take on bigger issues, such as promoting good urban governance, justice for the poor, public accountability and larger-scale economic development. It is equally vital to build strategic alliances with professionals, business people and policy makers, encouraging them to enter into a relationship with the poor by using their skills, privileges and influence to promote sustainable change.